Santa Clara County History

History of Santa Clara County


Charitable and Humanitarian Organizations of San Jose--The Good Cheer Club, County Charities, Home of Benevolence--Pratt Home, Salvation Army, Notre Dame Institute, and Young Men's Christian Association.

The Associated Charities was organized in 1894, and while in existence met with the generous co-operation of the public. The directors represented the churches of every faith in San Jose, as well as other existing charitable bodies. The aims were to make investigation and keep a record of all cases of distress reported; to give temporary relief in emergency cases and then report them to the charitable organizations under the jurisdiction of which they belonged; to expose fraud and prevent duplicate giving; and to secure work for needy women and men. Annual entertainments were given, which always netted the society a sufficient sum to tide it over until the next year. The officers for the first year were: Alfred C. Bean, president; Mrs. T. Ellard Bean, vice-president: Mrs. W. B. Hill, secretary; James Bean, treasurer, and Miss Cora M. Bethel, superintendent; board of directors, Mrs. S. B. Hawkins, Mrs. T. Ellard Beans, Mrs. A. T. Herrmann, Rev. H. M. Tenney, Mrs. H. Branham, James Bean, Mrs. W. L. Woodrow, Mrs. W. B. Hill, Mrs. E. G. Williams, Mrs. Anna Taber, Mrs. Alfred C. Bean; honorary directors, G. D. Worswick, Mrs. S. C. Winchester, Rev. Father Gleeson, Mrs. Geo. M. Bowman, J. H. Campbell. Mrs. E. O. Smith, Mrs. H. Levy, Mrs. C. D. Blaney, Mrs. E. McLaughlin, Mrs. B. Cochrane, Mrs. Jackson Hatch, J. E. Knoche, James Rhodes, Mrs. W. P. Dougherty, Mrs. S. A. Jones, E. A. Hayes.

The association continued its beneficent work until 1917, when the Santa Clara County Charities was organized under the state law and with state and county aid. As its operations and aims were about the same as those of the Associated Charities, the latter organization concluded to disorganize and then to reorganize under the name of the Social Service Agency. This action was taken after it had turned over all its data to the County Charities. As the Social Service Agency it allied itself with the Good Cheer Club, and for several years assisted in the club's campaign work.

Miss Cora M. Bethel, former superintendent of the Associated Charities, is the investigator or superintendent of the County Charities, Ray B. Newman is the secretary, and fine offices have been fitted up in the county court house. The board of supervisors has discontinued its alms-giving system and has turned over all that business to the County Charities for investigation and action. The County Charities presents claims of applicants for relief to the board and the board makes the allowances. The state aid for the six months ending December 31, 1919, amounted to $16,723.16; supplementary, $1,012.03; total, $17,735.19. Total of all aid for the six months, $23,173.02.

In addition to its other work, the County Charities dispenses the Widows' Aid Pension. Nearly all the claims of applicants for aid are for groceries, clothing and other necessaries.

The Good Cheer Club

The Good Cheer Club, started in 1904, is the health organization of Santa Clara County. The objects are to promote health and efficiency in the community, to give systematic relief to the sick, poor and needy, and to establish a fund for these purposes. Annual membership fee, five dollars; life membership, twenty-five dollars. The officers are: President, De Lancey Lewis; vice-presidents, Mrs. Chas. Allen, Mrs. John E. Richards; secretary, Miss Emma Philbrick. It is supported by the Santa Clara County Welfare Association, consisting of the Florence Crittenden Home, the Anti-Tuberculosis Society and the Social Service Agency. It receives state and county aid and fees from patients. The average monthly cases exceed 1,000. The departments include mental, medical and dental clinics and social hygiene. There are nineteen physicians on the consulting list.

The work of the club is done by no other organization in San Jose, yet it is in close co-operation with all the other humanitarian agencies and at the least possible expense. It reaches not only the very destitute and deficient, but the large American middle class in need of assistance. This assistance the club is organized to give, not so much as a charity but as a public health service. Visiting nursing in the homes was started in 1904 and for several years that constituted the largest part of the work; but at last it became necessary to establish an office and dispensary, where applicants could be received, medicines and sick-room supplies distributed, surgical dressings made and sterilized, patients met by appointment, doctors consulted. etc. Each branch of work undertaken has been the direct result of a real need. One of these was the clinic where children could have continued treatment. Doctors cheerfully cared for patients through acute attacks. It seemed impossible at first for the club to successfully follow up these attacks, as each child had a different doctor and a different hour of appointment. But at last the club succeeded in opening a medical clinic through which children below par mentally and physically have been treated with wonderful results. Every child is given a thorough examination, the case is properly diagnosed, often by means of X-ray pictures and various tests. Treatment is then prescribed, medicine furnished, and when necessary the case is dismissed, continued or referred to other treatment. Many children have received expensive surgical corrective treatment and hospital care, with no expense whatever to the parents. Through the operation of the medical clinic was found an absolute need for a dental clinic. Before this, only emergency work had been provided through the generosity of first one dentist and then another, but it was found that nearly every child coming to the medical clinic needed dental care, hence the establishment of a dental clinic.

The social hygiene department was established on February 1, 1919, with the assistance of the State Board of Health. There are now 200 patients being treated. In San Jose there are clinics conducted daily in all departments. Branches of the club have been established in Los Gatos, Campbell, Mountain View and Santa Clara.

The nationalities of the new cases treated for one month in 1920 were as follow: American, 213; Italian-American, 86; Italian, 18; Spanish-American, 29; Japanese, 2; Swedish, 3; Portuguese, 1; German, 3; Spanish, 2; Jewish-American, 4; Slavonian-American, 1. Total, 362.

Home of Benevolence

The Home of Benevolence owes its existence to the efforts of the Ladies' Benevolent Society. This society was organized in 1867, as a result of a meeting of Richard Savage, internal revenue assessor; J. J. Owen, editor of the Mercury; Mrs. A. M. Gates, wife of the principal of the San Jose Institute; Mrs. J. C. Cobb, and a few others. At the organization meeting, on April 16 of the same year, the following officers were elected: President, Mrs. J. C. Cobb; vice-president, Mrs. A. Pomeroy; secretary, Mrs. N. Hayes; treasurer, Mrs. C. R. Spaw. At the same meeting Mrs. W. N. Slocum, Mrs. G. Evans, Mrs. F. E. Adams and Mrs. E. J. Wilcox were appointed managers. The constitution stated the object of the society to be the rendering of assistance to sick and dependent persons residing in the city of San Jose.

Upon the acceptance of the constitution the following ladies were elected as a visiting committee: Mrs. R. B. Hall, Mrs. E. Alban, Mrs. China Smith, Mrs. Joseph Ingham, Mrs. D. L. Shead, Mrs. A. L. Rhodes, Mrs. D. T. Adams. Mrs. Wesley Tonner, Mrs. J. R. Whitney, Mrs. T. Ellard Beans, Mrs. Josiah Belden, Mrs. P. T. McCabe, Mrs. J. C. Smith; auxiliary committee, J. A. Quinby, J. J. Owen, D. S. Payne, E. J. Wilcox, Richard Savage and A. B. Hamilton. The amount of fees collected through enrollment was thirty-nine dollars. Thus was launched upon the tide of human woes and human blessings one of the most beneficent, yet unostentatious, of local forces; a power that for over fifty years has steadily and quietly gone about doing good. There have been no emoluments or honors connected with its offices, no worldly benefits accruing to any of its members.

In May, 1867, Mrs. Spaw tendered her resignation, which was accepted, and Mrs. N. Hayes, afterwards Mrs. Chas. J. Martin, was elected treasurer, pro tem, and the names of Mrs. Norman Porter, Mrs. L. Archer, Mrs. R. B. Buckner and Mrs. R. T. O'Hanlon were added to the list of members. During the second month, Mrs. James Hart, Mrs. J. Manly, Mrs. R. Savage, Mrs. Chas. Allen, Mrs. C. S. Crydenwise, Miss Sarah Severance, Mrs. K. Patterson, Mrs. S. A. Barker, Mrs. A. N. Hamm, Mrs. John Rouse and Miss Anna Cobb enrolled themselves as members. In August, Mrs. J. Lewis, Mrs. J. Cutler, Mrs. Stephen Thorne and Mrs. S. J. Churchill joined.

In 1872 the society incorporated under the laws of the state. At the same time T. Ellard Beans, T. W. Spring, A. C. Erkson and Mr. Rhodes were appointed as trustees, in addition to the presiding officers and board of managers. The event of the year was an appropriation of $500 from the state.

The Home of Benevolence was established by the society in 1877, and the same year the constitution was so amended as to provide rules and regulations for a home for destitute children and aged and infirm persons. The little was first located in a rented building on the corner of Third and Martha streets, Mrs. A. H. Anderson serving as matron. Special laws were made for the place. By permission of the board of trustees children under peculiar circumstances could be admitted, and all mothers who earn their living were allowed to place their children at the home by the day, paying a small compensation for the accommodation. Independent of the homeless children and helpless women who found shelter and care in the home during the first year of its existence, twenty-five tramps received "square meals."

An Authors Carnival to raise money toward the building of a home that would answer all requirements was given at Music Hall on February 26, 1878. The officers at this time consisted of Mrs. Nellie Eyster, president; Mrs. M. X. McKee and Mrs. L. W. Moultrie, vice-presidents; Mrs. Louisa King, secretary, and Mrs. Frances D. Williams, treasurer; board of managers, Mesdames J. C. Cobb, C. R. Span, T. W. Spring, A. M. Gates, Ben Cory, P. D. Hale, Dr. Stone, E. Coombs, T. E. Beans, S. A. Clark, C. H. Allen, H. J. Haskell, Jackson Lewis, P. T. McCabe, A. T. Herrmann, M. Dimond.

The carnival was a success, the sum of $2,987.85 being netted to the society. In September, 1878, the home was removed to the old Schroeder place at the junction of First and Market streets. Here, with a family of nine children and two invalid women, the society took temporary possession, Mrs. A. R. Ransom as matron. The house being large and unfurnished, the draught upon the treasury to make it both habitable and comfortable was heavy. Various means to raise funds were discussed, among which was the proposition to have a course of scientific lectures by some of the savants of San Jose. About this time Geo. W. Fentress, city librarian, was authorized to offer prizes for the best poem and the best story by San Jose authors. That for the best poem, "An Arboreal Song of the Alameda," was unanimously awarded, by intelligent judges and critics, to its author, Mrs. Mary H. Field. The poem purports to be--

"The song of an ancient tree,
Which it softly crooned to me
As I walked on an autumn day
In the Alameda--the beautiful way--
The pride and glory of San Jose."

It tells in musical rhyme the history of the century's years, dating from the time when--

The gray old Mission Fathers nine
In the long refectory hall,
Lingering over bread and wine,
and planning.
For the glory of God and the good of
Plant some trees whose greenery
A screen from the burning sun shall be.

After much opposition from the brother Friars, who thought the plan of planting a "league of forest" too large to come within their compassing, it was done, and when the originator of the plan, the benevolent and weary Father de Catala, slept one night a bright vision hovered o'er him.

And he saw, as in a magical glass,
The trees of his planting so stately
They leaned their tops 'gainst the
sky's soft blue.
While intertwining on every side,
The giant branches swept far and wide,
'Neath the lovely living arches' span
The broad, smooth highway level ran,
Its verduous vistas stretching on
Till the power of the raptured eye
was gone.

The vision shifted many times, until there came to the Friars' view some of the scenes of today:

A surging crowd of an unknown name--
An endless, hurrying, jostling throng,
Full of laughter, and jest, and song--
The ceaseless tide of a city's street.
The stately coach and the lumbering
Which came with rumble, and rush,
and roar,
Swarming with people, behind, before,
Above, within, and under, too,
For aught the puzzled Friar knew.
Whose living monument stands today
In the Alameda--the beautiful way.

Mrs. Field presented the manuscript of the poem to the society and an illustrated edition of 1,000 copies was printed, the sale of which produced a modest revenue.

It being found necessary to incorporate the Home of Benevolence as an institution separate from that of the Ladies' Benevolent Society, a meeting to take the necessary, steps was called on October 21, 1879, an election of officers followed and an application for a charter was made. In 1880, a house for the home was built on the Morey land on the corner of Martha and Eleventh streets. It consisted of eleven large rooms and two bathrooms. It was appropriately dedicated on September 5, 1880. It was then reported that there was not a dollar of indebtedness.

The event of the summer of 1882 was the furnishing of the two dormitories with thirty-six iron bedsteads, wire springs and hair mattresses, at a cost of $600. The children, irrespective of sex, were now taught to do their own bed-making. On January 21, 1885, the society accepted the deed of conveyance of the yearly revenue from the "Contingent James Lick Trust Fund" of $25,000 for the benefit of the Home of Benevolence. There were five acres in the original home tract, but six and one-half acres were afterwards added; also a hospital and a large addition to the building.

After the Santa Clara County Charities arid the Good Cheer Club began to do city and county work, the members of the Ladies' Benevolent Society devoted their time mainly to the care and maintenance of the home, which at present has seventy inmates (children).

The matron is Mrs. Skidmore. The officers of the society are: Mrs. Geo. B. McKee, president; Mrs. J. W. Blauer and Mrs. W. S. Clayton, vice-presidents; Mrs. A. G. Field, recording secretary; Mrs. Louis Sonniksen, financial secretary; Mrs. P. H. Jordan, corresponding secretary; Mrs. F. B. S. Williams, treasurer; trustees other than officers. Mesdames W. C. Bailey. F. O. Read, H. Center, J. R. Kocher, P. F. Gosbey, G. W. Borchers, G. D. Farrington, W. S. Van Dalsem, F. W. Moore, G. A. Muirson, C. R. Parkinson, S. A. Ogier, Joseph Pash, C. A. Wayland, J. W. Hamilton, J. W. Faull, G. A. Sweigert, and Miss C. Belle Eaton.

The Odd Fellows' Home

One of the finest institutions of the kind is the Odd Fellows' Home, located on Fruitvale Avenue about a mile south of Saratoga. It is a concrete building and was erected in 1912 at a cost of $300,000. There are eighty-two acres in the tract. In 1920 there were 174 inmates, fifty of them being tvoinen. The main building contains a ladies' parlor, library, assembly hall, reception room and rooms for the officers. A large part of the tract is planted in fruit trees and in 1919 fruit to the amount of $5,000 was sold. The home maintains hog and chicken yards and a vegetable garden, and in a large measure is self-supporting. The management is in the hands of a board of trustees consisting of John Hazlett, San Francisco; D. A. Sinclair, Oakland; Fred Pierce, Los Angeles; A. N. Bullock, Sacramento; Sam E. Moreland, San Jose. The superintendent is Dr. C. S. Arnold and his wife is matron. The average age of the inmates is seventy-six years and the cost of maintenance per inmate is $25.50 per month.

The Pratt Home

The Pratt home, a gift from Mrs. W. W. Pratt, located on South First Street near the Market Street junction, was organized in 1891. Since then two annexes have been built. It has been used for the relief of homeless children and aged people of both sexes. The main building is spacious and well appointed and is surrounded by handsome grounds that are adorned with trees and shrubbery. At present there are fifty inmates. The following are the officers elected in May, 1920: President, Mrs. W. L. Woodrow; secretary, Mrs. A. T. Herrmann; treasurer, Mrs. J. E. Richards; financial secretary, Mrs. C. H. Hervey; assistant treasurer, Miss Mayo Hayes; first vice-president, Mrs. Ernest Lion; other directors, Mrs. William Bogen, Mrs. B. Laughlin, Mrs. W. G. Alexander and Miss Dockstader.

Notre Dame Institute

The O'Connor Notre Dame Institute, located at the corner of Second and Reed streets, was formerly the residence of Judge and Mrs. M. P. O'Connor. On July 16, 1883, they donated the residence to the Sisters of Notre Dame for use as an orphanage for girls. At present there are twenty-five inmates, though there are accommodations for fifty. The inmates are cared for and given a thorough education. Those who wish can afterwards enter the College of Notre Dame high school. Others are placed in good situations after having been thoroughly inducted into the mysteries of domestic science.

The Salvation Army and Volunteers

The Salvation Army has been a humanitarian force in San Jose for over forty years. It carries a message of relief and hope to the poor and sick and its services both in war and peace have been important and far-reaching. The industrial department in San Jose, at 573 South Market Street, is conducted by Adjutant W. Boyd, while the hall on Post Street for meetings is in the hands of Captain W. Bamford.

The Volunteers of America organized in 1876, just after Ballington Booth had severed his connection with the Salvation Army and had formed the national organization of Volunteers. A home for men is located on North Fourth Street and an industrial department does business at 477 North First Street. Both of these places are administered by Staff Captain Rose Goth.

The work of the Salvation Army is illustrated in the story of old Bob Bennett. Fishermen and hunters in the Mt. Hamilton region will remember the old man, who lived the life of a hermit in a little cabin high up in a gulch that debouches into the Canyon of the Santa Ysabel. Old Bob is dead and the coyote yips and barks and the wildcat snarls and cries in the little flat where once was heard the plaintive strains of Old Bob's violin. The old fellow was a curious character. He was an Englishman, unmarried, and had no relatives in America. While a young man he followed the sea as a ship's carpenter. In middle life he came to San Jose and was employed for a number of years as a cabinet-maker in one of the city's large furniture stores. He had one besetting fault--overindulgence in strong drink--and inability to control the appetite sent him to the eastern hills for recuperation and reformation. But the habit of years was too strong to be easily thrown off. Some men in his situation might have fought the booze devil to a finish, but poor Bob was not a man of stamina. He was kind-hearted, honest and a hard worker, but he lacked the will-power to fight resolutely against his enemy. For a while he chopped wood, but ceased to manipulate the axe when the late W. T. Adel purchased Campoodie, a large flat below the Kincaid ranch, and engaged him to stay on the place and keep an eye on the improvements--an old log cabin and a recently built shack of two rooms. Bob stayed at Campoodie for a while, employing his spare time--which was about all his time--in making commercial use of the wood of the manzanita trees which grew in profusion above the flat. He was a cunning artisan, and having as his belongings a lathe and a full set of carpenter's tools, was able to fashion out of the seasoned manzanita all sorts of useful articles, from napkin rings
to canes.

After he left Adel's place he located in a gulch across the Ysabel Creek. The spot had a fine spring, and near the water he erected a cabin and a workshop, and while he lived he turned out manzanita work that found a ready sale. His best patrons were the astronomers at the Lick Observatory. Bob was a natural musician, though he could not read a note of music. He played the violin and banjo with equal facility, and during the camping season he would entertain the Ysabel campers with his music. All the time the drink habit held him in a vise. Once a month he would send to San Jose for provisions and a demijohn of whiskey. The whiskey would last about a week and during that time Bob would indulge himself to the limit. As the years passed the habit grew stronger, would not be denied. He found that he could not wait for the monthly supply, so he tried shellac to tide him over the shaky time. One day his shellac gave out. But he had a bottle of wood alcohol. Perhaps lie did not know that sudden death lurked in the bottle. Perhaps he did know, and was reckless of consequences. At any rate, he drank deeply of the poison and twenty-four hours later a rancher found him dead in bed.

Some time before his death, news of his unfortunate habit reached the lassies of the Salvation Army in San Jose. Two of them resolved to ride up to the place and use arguments and prayers to induce him to cut loose from John Barleycorn. Bob was shy and embarrassed in the presence of women, and when the Salvation Army lassies arrived he was shyer than ever, for he was just recovering from one of his periodical debauches. He greeted his visitors awkwardly and listened shamefacedly while they argued and pleaded. All the time he was fingering nervously the strings of his banjo. Argument was followed by prayers. The lassies knelt with heads bowed and prayed earnestly for the redemption of the man who stood above them. And while they prayed Bob, hardly knowing what he was doing, kept on with his banjo playing. He gave them as accompaniment to the prayer, "Old Dan Tucker" and "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight," and other lively tunes. Once a lassie looked up, a smile on her face, but when she noted the rapt expression on Old Bob's face the smile fled and the eyes dropped.

Juvenile Court and Probation Office

In 1908 Judge M. H. Hyland of the Superior Court became convinced from observation and experience that the law was unfair in its treatment of offenders under the age of twenty-one. In his opinion they should not be treated with the same severity that marked the treatment of adult offenders. He was therefore instrumental in the establishing of a juvenile court. To carry out his idea it was necessary that a probation officer should be appointed. There was no authority in law for the payment of a salary to this officer and for a time he had to rely on the enterprise and good sense of the board of supervisors. This body allowed his claim for expenses, but could go no farther in the matter. The first probation officer was Frank R. Shafter, who for some time had been actively connected with the Humane Society. He was succeeded by Geo. W. Lee, a Civil War veteran, and it was during Mr. Lee's incumbency that the State Legislature established the juvenile court and fixed a salary for the probation officer. From this time on the court waxed in influence and the probation officer found all the work he could do. Mr. Lee was succeeded by J. L. Montgomery, who held office until appointed as the head of the Preston Reform School at Ione. After him came C. H. Waterman and Mrs. Catherine Brattan, the present officer. She has as assistant E. A. Raymond. At the start the object of the probation office was to look after the interests of juvenile offenders, but latterly it has taken charge of state adult criminals who have been released from prison on probation. These offenders living in Santa Clara County are obliged to report to the probation office at stated times. Employment is found for them and they are given every opportunity to become good citizens. Of the 117 looked after in 1919, eighty-seven per cent have made good. In respect of the juveniles the probation officer, representing the juvenile court, hunts up cases of minors whose home life is not what it should be, or who have been regarded as bad boys or girls, made so by evil association and home surroundings, and as far as possible so improve the conditions as to give the subjects opportunity to lead moral lives. Many cases which might have come into court have been satisfactorily settled by the probation office. The juvenile court holds weekly sessions and offenders who are not released on probation are sent, not to prison, but to a reform school, convent or orphanage. Mrs. Brattan has been in office for seven years and has made a fine record for efficiency. From her last annual report the following statistics are taken:

New cases in which court action was taken--Male, 118; female, 44; total, 162. Cases settled informally--Male, 327; female, 97; total, 424. Wards placed on probation since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920--Male, 38; female, 2; total, 40. Free homes found, 30 since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920. Positions found, 60 since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920. Families reconciled, 26 since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920. Visits to homes, 242 since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920. Investigations, 571 since January 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920.

The Coffee Club

The San Jose Coffee Club Association is a semi-philanthropic, co-operative membership association, organized for the purpose of establishing rest and reading rooms which are maintained by the proceeds of the lunch department conducted in connection. The idea was originated about twenty years ago by Ernest Fox, now of Stockton, who received his inspiration from the old English coffee houses and tea rooms. These places were, and in some places still are, the social centers of their respective communities, operated as they are along temperance lines, but partaking of the conviviality of the ancient taverns. The club has fine rooms in a building on South Second Street near the corner of San Fernando Street. Almost any day one may see in the clubrooms the well-to-do man of affairs rubbing elbows with the "down-and-outer," to their mutual profit. Thus the club has become the melting pot of the community, enabling all sorts and conditions of men to meet as equals, for all are treated with courtesy and respect. It was started with membership fees and donations amounting to about $600 and has grown to its present worth through the recapitalization of the accumulated profits, there being no dividends or disbursements among the members or directors, all accumulations remaining in the business to be used for improvements and extension work.

With a growth from $600 to $15,000 in cash value, of floor space from 900 to 12,000 square feet, wages paid annually from $1,000 to $12,000, foodstuffs bought from $3,000 to $27,000, and from 300 to 1800 people accommodated daily, it may be seen that the Coffee Club fills a need and meets with public approval. The officers and directors of the Coffee Club Association are: Charles F. Crothers, president; L. P. Edwards, vice-president; Mrs. Maud A. Jacks, secretary; Dr. E. R. Wagner, Dr. Edward Newell, Prof. C. B. Gleason, Mrs. E. H. Baker, Miss Alice Winans, A. D. Campbell and S. D. Mathews is the manager.

The Woman's Exchange

The Woman's Exchange was started in 1899 from money gathered by Mrs. A. T. Herrmann and Mrs. Collins. The main object of the exchange was to give to needy women unable on account of family ties to do work on the outside, the opportunity to make a living in their own homes by baking bread, cakes, pies, etc., to be sold at a very small profit by the exchange. The sale shop is in Central Market, with Miss Alice Myers as manager.

Mrs. Herrmann has been treasurer ever since the organization. She now acts as president also. The other officers are Mrs. M. V. Nye, vice-president; Mrs. Wallace, secretary. The only salaried officer is the manager.

Humane Societies

The Santa Clara County Humane Society came into existence over twenty years ago, but for a time no business was done. In June, 1909, a reorganization was effected, with Dr. John W. Davy as president. The original object was to prevent cruelty to animals and children, but when the probation office was established the society ceased to work for the children and gave its whole attention to dumb animals. In June, 1919, Dr. Davy resigned the presidency and was succeeded by Geo. F. Wakefield. At the election in June, 1920, the following officers were elected: President, G. F. Wakefield; vice-presidents, Dr. J. W. Davy, F. R. Shafter, Mrs. A. M. Olinder; secretary, Mrs. E. R. Croft; treasurer, Miss F. Ury; directors, Mrs. E. R. Croft, Mrs. G. F. Wakefield, Mrs. E. H. McCarthy, Mrs. E. A. Guilbault.

In December, 1919, the Humane Educational Committee was organized as an offshoot of the Humane Society by Mrs. G. F. Wakefield, It has twenty-one members and the object is to educate the young to being kind to animals by talks and lectures. These talks are given mainly in the public schools. On June 23, 1920, under the auspices of the committee, Mrs. Minnie Maddern Fiske, the distinguished actress, spoke at the Hotel Vendome on the conservation of food animals and the abolishment of the trap. She was introduced by Mrs. Wakefield. Mrs. Fiske first made fetching apology for her appearance, stating that she had hoped to arrive in time to put on "her beautiful dress," but as she looked very lovely in her satin traveling cloak with its corsage of orchid-tinged sweet peas, her appearance was delightfully satisfying and proved that a lecture may be twice as interesting when the lecturer retains her femininity.

Touching briefly on a recent moment of discouragement when after twenty years of incessant labor a small body of humanitarians found that conditions were no better but even worse, Mrs. Fiske told of the renewed courage that came to them with a suggestion from a man in Denver who had devoted the best years of his life to their particular study. It is no longer necessary, she explained, to apologize or offer explanation for the mental attitude of those who feel a very great responsibility toward the dumb creation, although fifty years ago anyone interested in it was laughed at, and the old criticism that such people were insensible to human need should be extinct by this time, for it is stupid and wicked. Nor are humanitarians sentimentalists. Booth Tarkington, the creator of Penrod, and James Metcalf, editor of "Life," both active humane workers, were cited as examples and no one would consider them sentimentalists.

The Jack London Society was formed in May, 1920. It is a national organization with headquarters in Boston. There are no officers and no dues. Each member, by his signature, agrees to leave any motion picture or other performance where trained animals appear, and to inform the manager of the reason for the departure. The movement was started after the publication of Jack London's two dog stories, "Michael" and "Jerry."

Young Men's Christian Association

The Young Men's Christian Association of San Jose was formed in 1867. For several years it had a precarious existence. In 1873 it "ceased to function" and its books and other furnishings were sold to the San Jose Library Association. A few years later it was on its feet again and in 1890 a fine two-story modern wooden building was erected for its use. The location was on North Second Street near St. John. For several years the association had its ups and downs, but as debts began to accumulate it was found necessary to sell the building and lot. The Labor Temple Association was the purchaser. Up to 1912 the Y. M. C. A. occupied rented quarters. In May, 1911, with new blood in its veins, the association started a campaign for funds for a new building and equipment. The first gift was that of Chas. D. Blaney for 55.000. This was followed by one from Mrs. Maria P. Schofield for $25,000. In all, in ten days' work, the sum of 5160,000 was subscribed. A large lot on the southeast corner of Third and Santa Clara streets was purchased and ground for the new building was broken on April 18, 1912. The cornerstone was laid on August 20 of that year. The building is a credit to the city. It is of the modern renaissance design. The building is 132 1/2 feet on the Third street side and 57 1/2 feet on the Santa Clara street side. At the rear the gymnasium, which has a width of 40 feet, forms an L extending to the east 75 feet. The building is five stories and basement. It is of entire concrete construction with concrete stairways.

The basement has four first-class bowling alleys. Electric and steam driven pumps supply water from the artesian well and circulate the hot and cold water supply to the baths and different parts of the building. The ventilating and indirect heating system is installed and there is also the Rotex vacuum system of cleaning. The reading room is a portion of the west side of lobby and provides a very convenient place for the reading of the many periodicals, books and newspapers on file. Here is a correspondence table inviting the stranger to write the delayed letter. On the east side of the lobby are the billiard and pocket billiard tables. All the furniture here, as well as in all parts of the building, is of solid fumed oak construction. The gymnasium is 40 feet wide and 75 feet long. The floor is of white maple. It is provided with a running track 6 feet wide, the track being twenty-eight laps to the mile. The swimming pool is 20 by 60 feet. The floor of the pool is laid with vitrified tile and its walls are lined with glazed white tile. The edge of the floor around the entire pool, as well as the overflow edge which continues entirely around the pool, is constructed so as to keep the pool in the most sanitary condition and also provides good hand holds. The water is crystal clear, the pool havine a capacity of over fifty thousand gallons. The twenty-two shower baths are constructed of marble and tile and nickel fittings throughout. The boys' department is located on the west portion of the second floor, with separate game and reading rooms, equipped to delight every active boy. The assembly room has a seating capacity of 250. A kitchen adjoins this room, providing means of serving banquets and suppers. The dormitories occupy the third, fourth and fifth floors. There are seventy-five rooms in all. Each floor is equipped with ample lavatories, shower baths, linen closets and trunk room.

Chas. D. Blaney was chairman of the building committee and his assistants were E. N. Richmond, Prof. J. E. Hancock. H. A. Blanchard and Geo. C. Wilson. Blanchard, then president of the board of directors. The Citizens Campaign Committee to raise the funds for the building had as chairman Henry C. Murgotten, who was assisted by Chas. A. Titus, special secretary, Y. M. C. A., and the following group leaders business men: J. S. Williams, C. H. Waterman, Fred M. Stern, W. L. Prussia, V. Koch, E. K. Johnston, J. W. Chilton, G. W. Borchers, H. M. Barngrover, L. B. Avery. Young men: W. E. Spearman, E. D. Shepherd, E. N. Richmond, F. H. Patterson, M. D., J. W. Nixon, Ed. Newell, M. D., C. W. Janes, Geo. N. Herbert, J. D. Crummey, C. D. Cavallaro.

The new building was opened on May 29, 1913. The association is conducted by the following business men of San Jose: Board of directors--A. S. Bacon, Frank H. Benson, H. A. Blanchard, Geo. B. Campbell, C. D. Cavallaro, John D. Crummey, D. J. Denhart, Geo. D. Gilman, J. E. Hancock, J. E. Hoblit, Dale Holland, Stanley D. Mathews, V. T. McCurdy, Dr. Edward Newell, W. B. Reilly, H. T. Reynolds, W. H. Stray, Dr. E. R. Wagner, C. H. Waterman, Dr. A. E. Dickinson; board of trustees--W. G. Alexander, Dr. D. A. Beattie, H. A. Blanchard, C. D. Blaney, D. C. Crummey, Chas. F. Crothers, W. S. Orvis, Dr. E. R. Wagner, Dr. C. M. Richards; the activities of the association are directed by these secretaries: R. C. Smedley, F. A. Saxton, G. E. Atkinson, H. V. Lucas, C. G. Mathews.

It is the business of the association to keep men on their feet; to help them to be physically strong, well and efficient. The total attendance at the gymnasiumn for the last year was 24,793. Shower baths to the number of 29,000 were taken and 21,600 swims were enjoyed in the big, crystal pond; 3,136 different men occupied rooms in the dormitory, some for one night, some for months, finding a clean, safe place away from home. Over 1,400 servicemen were helped since June 1, 1919. Ex-service men, numbering 427, were helped to find positions and 582 were given temporary help when they were without money. Hundreds were given counsel and advice on personal and business matters. Through lectures, entertainments, socials and personal service hundreds have found help at point of need. The association is distinctly a Christian Association. It does not force religion on anyone, but conducts a work intended to present Christian principles in a practical way. Geo. D. Gilman is president of the association, John D. Crummey is vice-president, R. C. Smedley is secretary, and Fred Saxton is physical director.

Boys' Outing Farm

After the earthquake of April 18, 1906, Mrs. Bertha M. Rice, a philanthropic woman of San Jose, visited San Francisco and what she saw enlisted her sympathies in behalf of the boys who roamed the streets in the Potrero district. Her sympathy soon found practical form and a few months after her visit she secured control of a large tract of rolling land in the foothills above Saratoga. The tract commands a fine view of the Santa Clara Valley and is in every respect admirably suited to the purpose she had in mind--to provide a place for boys' outing in vacation or other times. Her plans met the approval of many charitable and well-to-do women of San Francisco and funds were secured for the launching of the laudable undertaking. Every year since 1906 the boys of San Francisco and other cities of Central California have flocked to the place, finding there not only a healthful climate and beautiful surroundings, but all the appliances for outdoor sports and recreation. The farm is supplied with a large cement swimming pool, a Greek Theater and many tents. The Boy Scouts have found the farm an ideal camping place and they come in numbers to the place every summer. Last year (1921) was the fourteenth annual encampment of the Scouts. Sunday evening services were held around a huge camp fire and many noted speakers came down to address the children. A number of San Francisco srhool teachers and scientists from the universities are assisting Mrs. Rice and her son, Roland, who is her right-hand man, in a course of nature study trips and lectures which have been inaugurated for the benefit of the children. Visits are made to the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton, the State Redwood Park and other points of interest.

Red Cross Society

The San Jose Chapter of the Red Cross Society was organized in 1898 and the work it has done forms one of the brightest pages of history. The first thought of this mighty philanthropy that set the pulse of the whole world throbbing in sympathy, originated with Henry Dunant, an humble but noble-hearted Swiss, who while wandering over the battlefield of Solferino, in the capacity of a reporter, was so forcibly impressed with the necessity of immediate help for the multitude of mangled soldiers he say lying there with their livid faces turned to the sky, crying out with their dying breath for a drop of water, that he determined to make an appeal to the world at large to relieve, if possible, the misery of those who risk their lives on the battlefield for their country. He wrote not of the glory of war, or in praise of its heroes, but on the horror of the sacrifice and suffering it involved, stirring the very heartstrings of the people and creating such enthusiasm for the cause that he was requested to appear before the public and explain his views. The meeting was held and Dunant set forth his plan of organized and systematized relief, in time of war, irrespective of friend or foe. At this meeting a call was issued for an international convention to be composed of those in sympathy with the noble design of its founder. The convention met in Geneva in 1863, held a four days' session and issued a call for a general convention in 1864. This second convention lasted two weeks and resulted in the adoption of a code of nine articles which afterwards became the basis of what is known as the Geneva Treaty. This code, which has been accepted and adopted by every civilized nation of the world, is the basis of the Red Cross Society.

The Geneva Treaty provided for the neutralization in time of war of the wounded, of persons and material for their care, of hospital nurses and hospital supplies. A flag as a common sign for hospitals, and an arm badge for convoys and attaches, was agreed upon. The flag adopted was a red cross on a white ground in honor of the country in which the charity originated. Wherever this little flag, blazoned with its red cross, is unfurled, it announces no idle dream of material glory, but regardless of country or creed, touches the heart of every soldier with the spirit of brotherly love. It is even on the battlefield "the touch of nature which makes the world akin." It gives place, too, for woman, with her tender and humanizing influences, even on the "battle's bloody marge." She need no longer sit with tearful eyes and folded hands, awaiting the dread issue of the conflict--she can serve under the flag of the Red Cross as an angel of mercy.

The organization of the Red Cross in America is mainly due to that noble woman, Clara Barton. The formation of the International Society came too late for its utilization in the American Civil War of 1861-65, in which Miss Barton took an honorable and active part. During the Franco-German war of 1870 she went to Europe, carrying on her deeds of mercy under the sheltering folds of the Red Cross. On her return to the United States she tried to have the American Government adopt the Geneva Treaty and persisted in her efforts during the administrations of Presidents Hayes, Garfield and Arthur. It was finally adopted by Congress on March 2, 1882. Miss Barton, who had previously organized a Red Cross Association, was made its first president, and the exceeding glory of having first planted this beneficent society on American soil belongs to her. After the acceptance of the Geneva Treaty, the National Association at Washington was formed, and that was quickly followed by state associations. No society, however, was formed in California until the breaking out of the American-Spanish War in 1898. During that war and through the strenuous days that followed the earthquake of 1906, the San Jose Chapter performed noble service. But its crowning efforts were exhibited during the European war of 1914-1918, particularly during the two years that witnessed America's participation in the struggle. The story of the self-sacrificing work of the chapter, which was organized in 1917, is told in another chapter of this story. It was the first chapter on the Coast to manufacture and ship garments to the refugees of France and Belgium. It has never been without funds. Overhead expenses were never more than two per cent of the money handled. The society affords relief in times of peace as well as of war. The National Society was the great reliever of suffering during the floods at Galveston and Dayton, the fires at Boston and San Francisco, and the earthquake on the Pacific Coast. The organization is semi-military and always ready for work. The officers of the San Jose Chapter are Dr. J. B. Bullitt, chairman, and W. T. Rambo, secretary.

The W. C. T. U.

The National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which has several branches in Santa Clara County, the most important one being in San Jose, was organized in Cleveland, Ohio, in November, 1874, with Mrs. Wittemyer president and Frances Willard secretary. In 1879 California locals were formed in Grass Valley, Sacramento and Petaluma. A convention was held in Petaluma in that year and the California State W. C. T. U. was then organized. Mrs. G. S. Abbott of Oakland was the first president and Mrs. M. E. Congdon of Petaluma was the first secretary. The next year she was instrumental in organizing the San Jose branch, which had Mrs. Nellie Eyster as its first president. After the outside branches in the county were formed, Mrs. Fannie Woods was elected county president. Ever since its organization in Santa Clara County it has fought for good laws. It secured the passage of a bill forbidding the sale of liquor or tobacco to anyone under sixteen years of age. In 1893 a school suffrage bill championed by the W. C. T. U. was vetoed by Governor Markham. The present officers of the local branch are: Mrs. Laura Beal, president; Mrs. John G. Jury, vice-president; Miss Mary Burkett, corresponding secretary; Mrs. George Worley, recording secretary; Mrs. Addie L. Johns, treasurer.

There was a strong temperance movement in San Jose in 1874, and many women, afterwards members of the W. C. T. U., participated. The movement was started by Alex P. Murgotten, who obtained the requisite number of signatures to a petition asking the state legislature to pass a bill permitting a local option election in California. Other counties having filed petitions, the necessary act was passed March 18, 1874, which permitted every township or incorporated city in the state to vote on the question of granting or not granting licenses to sell intoxicating liquors. The supervisors of Santa Clara County issued the call on the third of June of that year and the election took place on June 27. Murgotten made a valiant fight to close the saloons, but he was without a strong organization, while opposed to him were the organized, determined and desperate band of saloonkeepers and winemakers. To aid his cause Sallie Hart came down from San Francisco, gathered a number of temperance women about her and made several speeches. One of the speakers hired by the saloonkeepers to bolster up their fight against Murgotten and his supporter was Rev. J. L. Hatch, who had succeeded Rev. Chas. G. Ames as minister of the Unity Congregation. Hatch was foot-loose at the time and made quite a stir while following up the redoubtable Sallie Hart. On election day there was intense excitement, for this was the first local option election ever held in San Jose. Rough measures were employed by adherents of the liquor-sellers and several attempts to mob the temperance women were made. In one, Sallie Hart had a narrow escape, and in another Mrs. L. J. Watkins and a number of her friends were subjected to harsh treatment. There were many refreshment booths about town and it was afterwards asserted that numbers of Murgotten's supporters, instead of getting into the thick of the fight and doing their utmost to defeat the saloonkeepers, passed the greater part of their time about the eating places. The result was that the temperance people were beaten, the vote standing 1430 for license and 918 against license.

Forty-one years elapsed before the temperance advocates made another attempt through local option to close the saloons of San Jose. During this time the temperance cause had everywhere strengthened, and therefore with confidence the issue was submitted for the second time to the voters on Tuesday, November 7, 1917. Now there was strong organization, newspaper support, unlimited funds and a favorable public sentiment. The proposition submitted was not as drastic as that of 1874--it meant the closing of the saloons, but permitted private consumption in homes and the sale of wine and beer at restaurant and hotel tables. A heavy vote was polled 6,214 electors voting to close the saloons and 4,667 voting to keep them open as before. In January, 1919, the national prohibition law went into effect.

Community Shop

In the spring of 1921 the Community Shop was started for the purpose of giving assistance to the poor and needy of San Jose by the sale of articles donated by charitably disposed citizens. It is conducted in such a way that people in need of clothing and other necessaries may buy at a small price to prevent the feeling that they are objects of charity. The annual report, made in April, 1922, showed that during the year the receipts were $14,675.46. Disbursements: Good Cheer Club, $2,541; Santa Clara Tuberculosis Association, $2,541; Day Nursery, $640.25; Home of Benevolence, $640.25; Sisters of the Holy Family, $423.50; Catholic Children's Aid, $847. Playgrounds, $265; Palo Alto Convalescent Home, $415. Mrs. F. A. Nikirk is the president of the hoard of directors, and the shop is located on San Fernando Street, between Second and Third.

Fraternal Orders

San Jose abounds in fraternal societies, and among the great number the following may be mentioned: Free and Accepted Masons, including York Rite and Scottish Rite; Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Red Men, Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen, Order of Camels, Order of Amaranth, Grand Army of the Republic, with women's auxiliaries, Woman's Relief Corps, Ladies of the G. A. R., Loyal Workers; Junior Order of American Mechanics, Fraternal Aid Union, Order of Good Fellows, Royal Neighbors, B. P. O. Elks, Order of Moose, Order of Eagles, American Yeomen, Daughters of Isabella, Rebekah and Eastern Star, Fraternal Brotherhood, Sons of St. George, Pythian Sisters, Knights of Pythias, Pyramid of Sciots, Cheerful Workers, nine troops of Boy Scouts, Spanish-American War Veterans, Knights of Columbus, Young Men's Institute, Young Ladies Institute, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Native Sans and Native Daughters of the Golden West, Daughters of Veterans, Foresters of America, Ancient Order of Foresters, Disabled American Veterans of the World War, Veterans of Foreign Wars, National League for Women's Service.

Source: Sawyers, Eugene T. History of Santa Clara County, Los Angeles, Calif; Historic Record Company, 1922.

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