Santa Clara County History

History of Santa Clara County


The Banks and Industries of San Jose--An Incident in the Life of E. McLaughlin--New Corporations Help to Build Up the City--Some of the Leaders of Industry.

The oldest banking institution in San Jose is the Bank of San Jose. now located at the northeast corner of First and Santa Clara Streets. It was opened for business in the Knox Block in March, 1866, by William J. Knox and T. Ellard Beans under the firm name of Knox & Beans and was conducted as a private banking house until January 31, 1868, on which date it was incorporated as a state bank. It was the first bank incorporated in Central California. The first officers were John G. Bray, president; T. Ellard Beans, cashier and manager; C. W. Pomeroy, seretary. In 1880 John T. Colahan, former city clerk, was appointed assistant cashier. In 1870 Mr. Bray died and T. Ellard Beans became president, a position he held until his death in 1905. Henry Philip succeeded Mr. Beans as cashier, acting in that capacity until 1875, when he was succeeded by Clement T. Park. W. V. Dinsmore was Park's successor. He resigned in 1912 and V. J. La Motte took his place. On the death of T. Ellard Beans, his son, William Knox Beans, became president. In 1871 the Bank of San Jose block, at its present location, was begun. It was completed in 1872. In 1906 the building was damaged by the earthquake and in 1907 it was torn down and a new five story, reinforced concrete building was erected on the site. The present officers are William Knox Beans, president; Victor J. LaMotte, vice-president and manager; A. B. Post, cashier. The capital stock is $300,000; surplus and reserve, $358,000.

T. Ellard Beans, one of the founders of the bank, was born in Salem, Ohio, and his early life was spent in mercantile and banking pursuits. He came to California in 1849, mined for a time and then went into mercantile business in Nevada City. He nearly lost his life in the great fire in that place in 1856. Ten years later he removed to San Jose. His death was generally regretted for he was one of the city's most reliable and competent business men. His son, William Knox Beans, entered the bank in 1878 and was vice-president before he took the higher office so long held by his father.

Bank of Italy

The Bank of Italy, a branch of the main institution in San Francisco occupies the three-story building formerly the home of the San Jose Deposit Bank of Savings, presided over by the late E. McLaughlin, who founded the bank in 1885. When the Bank of Italy took possession the operating space on the lower floor was greatly enlarged and remodeled. Capital paid in $9,000,000; surplus, $1,500,000; undivided profits, $1,924,959.37. A. P. Giannini is president and W. R Williams is cashier. San Jose officers are N. R. Pellerano, vice-president and W. E. Blauer, manager.

It was while the Safe Deposit Bank of Savings was in existence with E. McLaughlin as president and John E. Auzerais as cashier that it was the scene of one of the most daring robberies ever perpetrated in California. It was over thirty years ago and at that time the banks of the city and state had inside approaches like grocery and dry goods stores. There were no cages, no separate departments with either wooden or steel divisions. The gold was stacked generally at the end of a long counter and could easily be reached or handled by any customer. But the day came when the banks ceased to keep "open house." The cages and the steel safeguards came in to prevent any attempt on the part of the evilly inclined to steal the gold. The change was made after the robbery at the Safe Deposit Bank.

The robbery, shrewdly conceived, was the work of three men. One was detailed to enter the bank and engage the cashier in conversation while a second man was to do the actual stealing. The third man was to station himself on the outside near the door to prevent, if possible, any bank customer from going inside, and if not possible to do this, to give confederates warning that there was danger in the air. A moment for action was to be selected while the bank was free of customers and while the cashier (who was also the teller) was at some distance from the stack of money which reposed on a mahogany tray near the street end of the counter. Luck favored the robbers. With one man on guard at the door, the other two men entered the bank and successfully carried out the program agreed upon. While no unfriendly eye was upon him and while the cashier's attention was being diverted by robber number one, the second robber quickly seized the tray with the money--$10,000 in gold twenties, carefully stacked--concealed it under his overcoat and substituted for the tray of money a tray of gilded dummies. It was the expectation of the lawless trio that the substitution would not be discovered until the cashier had occasion to go to the tray to get gold for a customer.

Having performed the most difficult part of the program, the second robber, with his haul, passed out of the door. Following closely upon his heels went robber number one, his talk with the cashier having abruptly come to an end. Then the last member of the trio left his station at the door and joined his confederates. It was some time before the robbery was discovered. As soon as discovery was made there was a hurry call for the police, but when the officers arrived there was no trace of the robbers. The city was combed but nothing had been left behind to serve as a workable clue. Not one cent of the money was ever recovered.

Garden City Bank and Trust Company

The Garden City Bank and Trust Company, formerly the Garden City National Bank, is located on the lower floor of a seven-story concrete building on the southwest,corner of First and San Fernando Streets. The National Bank was chartered and organized in 1887 with Dr. C. W. Breyfogle as president and Thomas F. Morrison as cashier. In 1893 it ceased to be a national bank and became a state bank. Until the erection of the new building in 1906, it occupied quarters on the northwest corner of First and San Fernando Streets. S. B. Hunkins became president after the death of Dr. Breyfogle and held office until death claimed him in 1914. Then Thomas S. Montgomery took the presidency. Mr. Montgomery is the only one living of the original directors and stockholders. The capital stock is $500,000; surplus, $625,000; deposits, $8,005,984.59. The present officers are T. S. Montgomery, president; Dr. J. J. Miller, John F. Duncan, vice-president; W. G. Alexander, secretary; C. J. Tripp, cashier. The bank has branches at Campbell, Gilroy, Santa Clara and Saratoga.

Dr. Breyfogle, the founder, was a native of Columbus, Ohio, and a graduate of the Ohio Wesleyan University. The same year he left college he entered the U. S. Army, rose to the rank of captain and was compelled to resign on account of failing eyesight. After a partial recovery from his affliction he studied law until his eyes again failed. Homeopathic treatment cured him and then he resolved to become a homeopathic physician. Entering a medical college, he graduated in 1865 and in 1870 came to San Jose. In May, 1886, he was elected mayor of the city. In 1885 he organized the San Jose Building and Loan Association.

Security State and Savings Bank

The Security State Bank and Security Savings Bank occupy cosy rooms in a concrete building on First Street, opposite Post Street. It was organized as a savings bank in July, 1891, with Frank Stock as president, L. G. Nesmith, vice-president, and Paul P. Austin, cashier and manager, in the rooms adjoining the First National Bank. In 1900 W. S. Richards obtained control of the stock and moved the business to East Santa Clara Street, between First and Second Streets. In 1902 the Security State Bank was organized as an adjunct of the savings institution. In March, 1909, the business was removed to its present quarters. E. T. Sterling was cashier under Richards until his resignation in 1907. He was succeeded by Wilbur J. Edwards. Mr. Richards died in 1915 and Mr. Edwards succeeded to the office of president, and George B. Campbell became cashier. The vice-presidents were C. M. Richards and W. A. Johnston. The combined statement of the condition of the two banks, issued June 20, 1920, shows the following: Resources, $4,687,924.59; capital, $100,000; capital, surplus and profits, $492,646.81; combined deposits, $4,175,277.78.

First National Bank

The First National Bank of San Jose was organized July 11, 1874, with a paid up capital of $500,000, with John W. Hinds as president; W. L. Tisdale, vice-president, and G. P. Sparks, cashier. On July 6, 1875, the office of assistant cashier was created and L. G. Nesmith elected to the position. In 1880 W. D. Tisdale became president and L. G. Nesmith cashier. Tisdale was succeeded by George M. Bowman, who held office until 1903. On his death the presidency fell to J. D. Radford. In 1907 he resigned and W. S. Clayton was his successor and is still in office. In 1910 a new, up-to-date finely appointed concrete building of nine stories, the tallest building in San Jose, was erected on the site of the old building on the southwest corner of First and Santa Clara Streets. The capital stock of the bank is $500,000; surplus, $200,000; deposits, $7,108,100.83; undivided profits, $171,742.62. The present officers are W. S. Clayton, president; S. F. Leib, vice-president; Paul Rudolph, cashier.

The Growers' Bank

The Growers' Bank, a new institution, was organized in May, 1920, and opened for business in July of that year, in the Rea building, on the northwest corner of Santa Clara and Market Streets. It is purely a county bank, with its stock broadly owned within the district. The capital stock has been placed at $300,000; surplus, $60,000. The officers are: V. T. McCurdy, president; S. E. Johnson, vice-president; Fred W. Sinclair, cashier and manager.

The banks have a Clearing House Association and weekly reports are made. The officers are W. R. Beans, president; Paul Rudolph, secretary.

The Leading Industries

Chief among the leading industries of San Jose are the canneries and packing houses. They cover thousands of acres of ground and are mainly in the suburbs. Mention of their importance and activities has been made in the chapter covering the fruit industries of the city and county.

San Jose Foundry

Of the other industries--and they are many and are well sustained--the San Jose Foundry is the pioneer. It was first established in 1852 by Pomeroy and Mackenzie on the corner of First and San Antonio Streets, where it remained until 1871, when a larger building was erected by Donald Mackenzie, then the sole proprietor. Here, in addition to a general moulding and casting business, machines of many kinds were made and repared, the facilities for such work being complete. The iron work for the court house, county jail and other prominent buildings of San Jose was supplied by the San Jose Foundry. After the death of Donald Mackenzie the management passed into the hands of Andrew Mackenzie and was continued until his death in 1918. In 1905 the lot on which the foundry stood was sold and the plant was removed to Vine Street, near Santa Clara Street. The business is now in the hands of the Misses Mackenzie, Frank Cavallaro and Oscar Promis. Cavallaro is the superintendent and O. Promis is the secretary. The lot where the old foundry once stood is now occupied, by the Montgomery Hotel and the building of the California Prune and Apricot Growers, incorporated.

The Bean Spray Company

John Bean, the inventor of the Bean Spray Pump, began his work in the early '50s and enjoyed the distinction of being the inventor and patentee of the first double-acting force pump for well purposes. On account of ill health Mr. Bean moved to California in 1883. He bought an orchard and soon found that it was infested with scale. Only little squirt gun pumps were then on the market, so he put his ingenious mind at work and soon had built the first high-pressure spray pump with air pressure ever made. This pump was exhibited in the California fairs of 1884 and created such a demand that Mr. Bean formed a company and started a factory. D. C. Crummey, son-in-law of Mr. Bean, has been president of the company since 1888. Mr. Bean's fertile mind continued its work of inventing and perfecting spray pumps and spray nozzles until his death in 1908. Members of the third generation of the family are now actively engaged in the business and they, together with several of the trained experts who now form a part of the larger organization, have actively continued the work. The first factory was located in Los Gatos. It was moved to San Jose in 1903 and in 1908 there was built on Julian Street the largest exclusive spray pump factory in the world. Since that year several important additions have been made. In 1909 the company established a factory in Berea, Ohio, with branch offices at Cleveland. The business grew rapidly and in 1914 the Berea factory was discontinued and a new and up-to-date factory was built at Lansing, Michigan. The outfits of the company can be purchased anywhere in America. In San Jose, where the largest plant is located, the company not only makes everything for spraying, from hand spray pumps, power sprayer, light weight nozzles and accessories, high-pressure spray hose and spray guns, but also a deep well turbine pump for which the claim is made that there is an absence of all valve and priming troubles, that there are sanitary precautions and that it is adaptable to direct connection with vertical motors. J. D. Crummey is general manager of the company.

The company started a new industry in 1922 in the manufacture of single cylinder engines, this representing an expenditure of $100,000. It is the first factory of its kind to be established west of the Mississippi.

Anderson-Barngrover Manufacturing Company

Twenty-five years ago W. C. Anderson started in business as a manufacturer of canning machinery. About the same time the Cunningham factory was established. A few years afterwards the Anderson Prune Dipping Company was organized. The Cunningham factory consolidated with Barngrover and the Enterprise Foundry under the firm name of Barngrover, Hull & Cunningham. Anderson and the B. H. & C. Company were rivals for a few years and then came together as one company under the name of the Anderson-Barngrover Manufacturing Company. The first factory was on Santa Clara Street, but for over ten years it has been located on Julian Street, near the Guadalupe River. The buildings cover five acres of ground close to the tracks of the Southern Pacific Railroad and with patented devices it turns out a line of high-grade automatic canning machinery which inclues exhaust boxes. graders, peelers, washers, slicers, canning tables, scalders, washers, blanchers, syrupers and fillers for fruit; sorters, pan and bucket tables, peeling tables, pulpers, finishers and fillers for tomatoes, cap markers, fish canning machinery, green prune dipping and grading machinery, grape scalders and clippers, continuous agitating cookers, and many other useful and labor-saving devices. The plant is one of the largest of the kind in the world. Most of the larger plants and practically all the smaller plants on the Pacific Coast have been equipped by the Anderson-Barngrover Company. The largest and finest fruit canning plant in Australia, owned and operated by the Government, is equipped throughout with the company's line of machinery. The business has been developed solely by local men, and shipments to all parts of the world are made. Three plants in Australia were supplied during 1919. Three hundred men are employed and the sales for 1919-20 amounted to over $2,000,000. The officers are W. C. Anderson, president; F. L. Burrell, vice-president and manager; B. D. Hull, secretary, E. B. Weaver, treasurer. Directors--W. C. Anderson, F. L. Burrell, F. E. Weaver, G. H. Lyle. H. C. Minker, T. C. Barnett.

Smith Manufacturing Company

The Smith Manufacturing Company, consisting of father and son--J. S. Smith and Chas. O. Smith--the former the president, the latter the manager, was formed in 1902 and has a large plant on Stockton Avenue, near the Alameda. The company makes exclusively fruit machinery for the fruit grower, tanner and dried fruit packer. The implements turned out are a combined dipper, grader and automatic spreader; a power cylinder spreader; a combined dipper and spreader; a combined dipper, rinser and spreader; steel tanks, dipper basket, field car, transfer car, turn table, dried fruit grader, dried fruit receiving car, standard fruit barrow and box truck. The company does not claim any special dexterity or secret methods, but it does claim that its machinery is made with that care and honesty of purpose which produces a uniform quality unexcelled by other makers.

Sperry Flour Company

The first flour mill in San Jose was erected by R. G. Moody in 1854 on the banks of Coyote Creek about the spot where Empire Street ends. Here the propelling power was water, procured from an artesian well. The business was transferred to Third Street, near the corner of Santa Clara Street, in 1858, where steam instead of water was used to drive the machinery. The improvements consisted of a mill and warehouse, the latter with a capacity for the storage of 40,000 sacks of flour. The mill fronted on Third Street, the warehouse on Fourth Street. Mr. Moody put in porcelain rollers soon after their introduction to this Coast and manufactured the once celebrated "Lily White Flour." He retired from business in the early '60s, and was succeeded by his sons, Charles, Volney and David B. Moody. After a few years Volney Moody sold out his interest, removed to Oakland and became a banker.

In 1887 the Moody brothers sold out to the Central Milling Company, which soon took in all the mills in Central California. C. L. Dingley was president, and D. B. Moody secretary. For a number of years the company used for manufacturing purposes the mill in San Jose, but the time came when the Santa Clara Valley ceased to be the grain center of the state. Grain fields everywhere had been converted into fruit orchards, and fruit culture became the great industry of the valley. In 1892 the Sperry Flour Company absorbed the Central Milling Company and W. G. Alexander was appointed manager. Through his activity and sound business sense the company extended its operations until it had practically covered the entire state. Now its tentacles have reached out to include Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Utah. Mr. Alexander continued in office for twenty-three years--until he went into business for himself. He was succeeded by his brother, Howard Alexander, who died in 1912. E. B. Devine is the present manager. The main office of the company is in San Francisco. David B. Moody retired from the secretaryship many years ago. He is now one of the directors of the San Jose Keystone Company, of which W. G. Alexander is president.

The Globe Mills

The Globe Mills opened in June, 1920, a branch office and warehouse in San Jose to care for their rapidly growing business in Santa Clara County. The opening of this enterprise indicates the belief on the part of one of the largest manufacturers on the coast that San Jose is destined to become an important factor in the commercial and industrial development of California. The Globe Mills is an old California concern with mills and warehouses in many cities on the coast and in Nevada and Utah. The local branch is under the management of J. W. Hollister, formerly of San Francisco. A complete line of the Globe Mills products is carried, and sales in San Jose, on the peninsula and on the coast north of and including Santa Cruz, are handled by this officer. A delivery system will be inaugurated operating as far north as Palo Alto.

The American Can Company

The American Can Company, a branch of the great New Jersey Company, has a plant on Martha Street, which takes in an entire block. This company is now employing 450 men and women. Foreseeing difficulty in obtaining the amount of help they needed should other industries locate in San Jose and give regular employment throughout the year, and also anticipating the continued growth of the canning industry in this section of the state, the company early in 1919 completed plans for enlarging its business.

These plans have been developed so far that warehouse facilities to store 32,000,000 cans and track facilities for loading and unloading 50 freight cars at a time are the result. This storage capacity is now being added to the present plant in a warehouse 200 by 600 feet being built adjoining their original plant of 225 by 500 feet, making a plant covering an entire city black bounded by Martha, Keyes and Fifth Streets, with the Southern Pacific railroad on the Fourth Street side.

In making these additions to its plant the company intends to start year-round work for its employees. None but adult help will be employed and except in case of emergency all night and overtime work will be done away with. With the greatly increased storage capacity there will be enough room to care for the needs of the company's customers with the constant shipment of those concerns operating throughout the greater portion of the year. The plant was located in San Jose in 1912. In 1919 the company's output was over 10,000,000 cans. John S. Reed is the superintendent.

Security Warehouse and Cold Storage Company

The spacious mansion occupied first by Mrs. Sarah L. Knox-Goodrich and afterwards by Capt. C. H. Maddox and family on First Street, opposite the Southern Pacific depot, has been removed and now the grounds covering nearly an acre and extending from First to Second Streets, holds the large and costly concrete buildings of the Security Warehouse and Cold Storage Company. The improvements were started in the spring of 1920.

The enterprise is the result of a determination on the part of local business men who decided that the time had come when the Santa Clara Valley would support such a plant. They organized a $500,000 corporation, all local capital, secured the desired site and started operation. The building is of concrete, except a small portion of the roof over some dry storage rooms, and is the most modern in every particular that the directors could find in visits to like plants throughout the country. There are in reality four distinct buildings, each accessible to the other and separated by double fireproof doors. Floors are all of concrete as are the supports in all the main parts.

The location of the plant is ideal, facing both First and Second Streets, and adjoining the main line of the Southern Pacific. There are two side tracks at the railroad site with a storage capacity of twelve cars for either loading or unloading. The fourth side is a very wide drive for the use of teams and unloading auto trucks.

The building is 145x275 feet, of two-story and basement design, and is equipped with an elevator of great capacity for the purpose of getting goods to the upper story and to the basement, all goods being unloaded on the main floor, to which the platform from either drive or railroad give direct access. Also there is a driveway for trucks or teams leading onto this floor that full loads intended for storage above or below may be placed directly on the elevator without trucking.

There are three distin [sic] storage system being installed to care for the different classes of goods expected to be handled: Direct cool air for the care of fresh fruit; a brine storage system for egg-keeping; and a direct expansion of ammonia system for the freezing of fresh fruits and meats. By the latter means it is said fruit may be frozen and kept for a period of several years, coming out with all the appearance and taste as if freshly picked.

The fresh fruit storage will be invaluable to growers and canners of this valley in case of an abundance of fruit ripening at once or in case of railroad trouble in shipping, as it can be placed here and kept until conditions for its use are right.

The company is also installing an ice-making plant and already has contracted for a part of the capacity of the plant to local concerns. This plant will be equipped with the latest apparatus for purifying the water before it is frozen and for the sanitary handling of the product.

The whole plant has a capacity of about 10,000 tons of storage besides the room being given up to storage of heavy vehicles, such as autos, tractors, and the like, of which there are many already in the building. This latter space is easily convertible into the other varieties if it is found there is demand enough to warrant such an alteration. E. E. Chase is president of the company, and J. Q. Patton is secretary.

Garden City Manufactory

This concern, started in 1919 at the corner of Willard and San Carlos Streets, specializes in women's and children's garments. Thirty competent women are employed and great bolts of muslin, percale, gingham, crepe, flannellette, satin and silk dominate the shop, housed in a large, modern cement building. The electric cutting machcine cuts 600 garments at once and there has been a rush of orders ever since the opening. S. C. Kimball is the proprietor.

Tile Company

The S. & S. Tile Company, located at Fourth and Lewis Streets, began operations in 1920. The claim is made that it is the only place in the United States where tiles are made by hand. The company's specialty is the manufacture of mosaics and the tiles of the ancient Moors, reproduction of the work done by the hands of skillful potters. A. L. Solon is the president of the company.

Spray Manufacturing Company

A new enterprise entailing the investment of $50,000 in perfecting the fruit spray was removed to San Jose from Hood River, and started in 1921 with a fine factory at Stockton and Emery Streets. The name is the San Jose Spray Manufacturing Company. J. C. Butcher, head of the firm known as the Butcher Company of Hood River, is the director of the research department, and D. L. Currier, entomologist, is the director of field work. At all times throughout the year the service department will be open for advice and consultation.

Artificial Leather Factory

In the winter of 1921-22 a company, consisting of local men, was organized to take up the manufacture of certain chemical products, the principal one to be that of artificial leather, of which the coast uses upwards of 200,000 lineal yards per month for automobile tops and upholstery, furniture upholstery, book binding and novelties. This product will be followed by an exceptionally beautiful silk manufactured under a patented process owned by the company. Other products will include non-inflammable moving picture films, lacquers, enamels and celluloid materials. An ideal factory site has already been secured just north of San Jose. The officers are: President, D. J. Conant; Zeno Ostenberg, vice-president and chief chemist; secretary-treasurer, J. A. Naismith; auditor, J. G. Shaw.

Manufactured Products

Figures received from the bureau of census by the local Chamber of Commerce in 1921 show San Jose to have produced in 1920 manufactured products valued at $25,000,000, nearly a five-fold increase over the 1910 total. The average number of wage earners employed is shown by the new census at 3,100, while in 1910 only about 1,340 were employed. The margin between raw material and finished products is placed at $10,628,000 over a total of $2,368,000 in 1910.

The canners do an annual business of $49,236,750; gross annual payroll, $4,837,102. In San Jose there are 73 purely industrial concerns.

Wholesale Grocers

The Walsh-Col Company is the pioneer wholesale grocery firm in San Jose. In 1898 P. M. Walsh and P. E. Col formed a co-partnership and started the business in a small store at 20 North Market Street. Business rapidly increased, and in 1901 the Walsh-Col Company was incorporated. In 1906 the present large and commodious building on North Market Street, near the Southern Pacific depot, was erected. It covers 400,000 square feet of ground. The building is of brick and concrete with entrances on Market and San Pedro Streets. The company deals in staple groceries, spices, extracts, and tea and coffee and the business extends from South San Francisco on the north to Paso Robles on the south. Forty persons are on the pay roll in San Jose and eight traveling salesmen are employed every month in the year. The capital stock is $100,000. P. M. Walsh died in 1912. The present officers of the company are P. J. Foley, president; P. E. Col, vice-president; J. J. Shaw, secretary.

The Keystone Company of San Jose was organized by E. H. Renzel in September, 1905. It occupied a small building and did a small business until August 19, 1909, when it was reorganized by W. G. Alexander. Today the buildings occupy 178 feet on North Market Street, running back to San Pedro Street. They are of concrete with all the modern appliances and equipment. The company keeps on hand as assorted stock of staple groceries, teas, spices, and extracts, and has recently added a coffee roasting apparatus for the preparation of the popular Keystone Coffee. The business extends from San Jose to Los Angeles on the south and to Portland, Oregon, on the north. W. G. Alexander is president, E. H. Renzel is vice-president, and P. D. Durling is secretary. The other directors are D. B. Moody, S. M. Vandervoort, W. H. Ledyard, Mrs. W. G. Alexander, J. E. Alexander and Merle Elliott. Proof that San Jose is the natural distributing center of Central California is given in the rapid growth and large volume of business of the Keystone Company. Pride is taken in the organization; there is cheerful cooperation and good fellowship among employes and officers, and every one labors heartily and efficiently for the success of the organization. The business done in 1919 approximated $2,000,000.

The Oliver Company

One of the comparatively new interests of San Jose and one which gives great promise of becoming a large factor in the fruit industry is that of oil burning equipment for heating of houses and for prune dipping and evaporating of other fruits. The Oliver Oil Gas Burning & Machine Company has located its western branch in San Jose, the work being carried on from the plant of the State Foundry & Pattern Works on the Alameda where patterns are made and the castings for the burners turned out. An oil-burning prune dipper has been on the market for some time, but in 1919 the Oliver Company placed a number of these machines throughout the valley, all giving satisfaction. While the company is at present installing the prune clippers, the evaporating business is receiving a large share of attention. These evaporators have burners which are claimed to be superior to those burning either coal or wood. The company is also making a variety of cook stoves, heating stoves and other house heating burners. They have burners in this line up to a capacity of a fifteen horsepower boiler. The main factory is located in St. Louis. Mo., and the San Jose factory is expected to develop into a large concern.

National Axle Corporation

The National Axle Corporation was organized in 1920. It purchased twelve acres on the Berryessa Road, in what was formerly known as Luna Park, and proceeded to erect a large one-story building at a cost of $68,000. The cost of the equipment was $110,000. Fifteen mechanics are now employed, but the expectation is that in the near future the force will reach the one hundred mark. In 1921. a new corporation obtained control of the plant, S. C. Kyle is president, and Earl C. Fancher and H. W. Smith are vice-presidents. Smith is the manager of the works. Axles form the main output, though the factory, is prepared to do all kinds of contract work. The building is 360 feet long by 90 feet wide. One hundred feet east of the National Axle building is located a branch of the Smith Manufacturing Company. The building is 75x60 feet in size and here is manufactured everything in the line of boilers and sheet metal work.

Plow Factories

H. G. Knapp & Son, in business in San Jose since 1900, have two large plants, one on South First Street, opposite Willow, the other at the corner of Fourth and Margaret Streets. Their products go to Honolulu, the Philippines, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Utah, and all parts of the state. They manufacture plows, tractors, side hill plows, whip saws, subsoilers, and gopher plows. A specialty is made of the Knapp tractor disc plow and the Knapp power lift. During the business season, the company employs forty-five men.

In 1919 the California Plow Company located in San Jose, having secured a four-acre tract on the old Polhemus estate, with close shipping facilities. C. B. and E. R. Polhemus comprise the company. A number of implements, including plows for tractors, horsedrawn tools and several kinds of harrows, are made. Besides the main shop, which is already equipped with the latest drill presses, lathes, punches and slicing machines, the company has started a casting foundry, operating on a small scale.

The Farmers' Union

The Farmers' Union was organized by Valley farmers on May 11, 1874, for the purpose of buying and selling groceries, produce, hardware--everything, in fact, save clothing--and maintaining stores. Besides the large store on Santa Clara Street, corner of San Pedro, it operates a store in Central Market and another at the town of Campbell. The capital stock when the company was organized was $100,000. It has since been increased to $200,000. The value of the stock on hand amounts to about the same figure. The first president was William Erkson. In 1878 he was succeeded by C. T. Settle, who continued in office until his death in 1900. W. C. Andrews was then chosen for the position, and he has held it ever since. He is also the manager of the store and his assistant is A. O. Matthews. Dr. W. C. Bailey is the secretary of the organization.

Granite and Marble Works

Schuh & Vertin have the only granite and marble works within the limits of the city of San Jose. Their establishment is at the corner of Santa Clara and Vine Streets, and like the other works on the outside they do all kinds of marble and granite work, special designing, etc. Near the city are located three other establishments, the Oak Hill Granite & Marble Yard, on the edge of the Cemetery. Monterey Road; the San Jose Granite and Marble Works, corner of First and Alameda Street, and the Western Granite & Marble Company's works on Stockton Avenue.

The marble business was established in San Jose in 1870 by J. W. Combs, and in 1878 W. W. Blanchard and Timothy O'Neill opened the first granite works. In 1883 a partnership between the three men was formed and the two interests were combined under the firm name of Combs, Blanchard & O'Neill. The name was afterwards changed to the Western Marble and Granite Company, and for many years business was done on First Street near the Southern Pacific railway tracks. At last, being cramped for space, the establishment was removed to Stockton Avenue.

Other industries are potteries, brick yards, machine shops, broom factories, box factories, refineries, book binderies, creameries, dairies, feed yards, sheet metal, wagon, mattress, shingle and pump factories, lumber yards and planing mills, rug works, macaroni factories, violin makers, well works, welding works, paste makers and coffee and spice mills. This does not include the dozens of garages, auto supply companies and auto repair shops.

Source: Sawyers, Eugene T. History of Santa Clara County, Los Angeles, Calif; Historic Record Company, 1922.

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